Basalt is one of the most common types of rock found on earth, formed by volcanic and sedimentary action. When magma erupts and cools, gases trapped in the lava form vesicles(holes/tunnels). Over time, these get filled in by secondary materials such as quartz.
Basalt varies in its structure, shape and texture due to the variances that result from rapid or slow cooling lava and whether the magma erupted in open air or underwater. The rock can be highly vesiculated when it cools in the open air and fine grained if allowed to cool slowly. It is usually dark grey to black.
The word ”basalt” is derived from the Latin, ”basaltes” or basanites meaning ”very hard stone.”
Basalt is very common along the ocean floor and basalt rocks or pebbles are constantly washed up on beaches the world over. NASA”s Apollo program to the Moon sampled basalt rock there as did the Russian Luna program. Basalt is also thought to exist on Mars based on data returned by NASA missions.
In magick and healing, basalt can be used in a number of ways. Its violent formation means it can be used in workings involving intense change. It is attribute both to fire (because of the fiery eruption) and earth (because basalt came from mother earth). More often than not, basalt signifies stability and patience, much how like the stone is stable after its birth. It is a good grounding stone to have. In an ideal setting, one might use basalt for a fiery person seeking calm in their lives or to bring about stability in a violent and changeable situation. Young basalt in particular can be used as a symbol of fire (As a rule of thumb, if the basalt has a lot of holes in it, it is ”young” as sediment has not had a chance to fill in and harden within the vesicles).